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Impact of plastic pollution on ecosystems


使用塑料是因为它们制造简单,便宜且耐用。不幸的是,这些相同的有用品质使塑料成为一个压倒性的污染问题。劣质和低成本意味着塑料易于丢弃。塑料要降解光大约需要300年。塑料的使用寿命长,可确保它在环境中生存很长时间,并可能造成很多损坏。由于塑料不容易分解并且需要高能紫外光分解,因此世界海洋中的塑料废物量正在稳步增加。现在,在世界上几乎每一个海洋和河流中,甚至在最遥远且曾经是原始海洋中,都可以找到塑料。



According to statistics, there are about 50 billion plastic bags of waste every year in the world. This is an unreasonable waste, using more than one million bags per minute, and their impact on the planet is devastating. Plastic bags are only part of the problem. In the United States alone, more than 800,000 tons of plastic bottles are produced each year. Our precious planets worldwide have more than 100 million tons of plastic pollution and poisoning every year.


According to the California Coastal Council, more than 80% of the rubbish in the waterways, mostly plastic waste, comes from land, not from ships.


Turtles are particularly damaged by plastic pollution. For various reasons, all seven sea turtles in the world are on the verge of extinction or threats. Turtles are entangled in plastic fishing nets, and many turtles are found in plastic garbage bags that die in their stomachs. Studies have shown that turtles mistake these floating translucent bags for jellyfish and eat them. Turtles die of inhuman deaths due to suffocation or inability to eat. A dead turtle found on the coast of Hawaii found more than 1,000 pieces of plastic in its stomach, including a part of the comb, toy card wheels and nylon cords.


There are significant environmental concerns about the impact of plastic waste on all marine mammals. These elegant creatures have been threatened for a variety of other reasons: for example, seal and whale populations have been destroyed by unregulated hunting. A recent study concluded that more than 100,000 marine mammals die unnecessarily from the deadly effects of plastic pollution each year.


It is known that more than 100 species of birds in the world ingest plastic granules. This includes 36 species found on the South African coast. A recent study on the hatching of blue sea Swallows on the remote island of Marion in South Africa showed that 90% of chicks have plastic in the digestive system, apparently being accidentally fed by their parents. South African seabirds are among the most affected seabirds in the world. The plastic stays in the bird's stomach, hinders digestion and causes hunger.



Scientific research on the consumption of plastic birds and fish is inconclusive, but scientists believe that plastics in seafood may be harmful to humans. Compare plastics to better understood toxic materials such as mercury.


塑料中的成分与癌症和生殖异常有关。在塑料水瓶中发现的双酚A已被证明会在实验大鼠中产生癌症,破坏激素水平并与糖尿病和肥胖症有关。


当暴露于多氯联苯之类的有毒物质时,塑料(如海绵)会将其浓缩至比海水中高数百倍的水平。


随着环境意识的增强,我们可以做更多的事情来创建一个可持续发展的社会。如果我们每个人都采取一些小步骤,做出不同的选择,并有意识地考虑我们对地球的影响,则可能有一种方法可以使世界恢复其原始的美丽和资源。

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